Radio 101 Terms 2018-02-14T11:41:34+00:00

Radio 101 Terms

Ad-ID
Advertising Digital Identification is a new system developed by ANA and AAAA that
provides the marketing and advertising industries with a new digital identification
standard for their advertising assets. The assets can be any materials: radio spots,
TV commercials, print ads, internet banners, out of home boards, and FSI’s. The
codes are 12 characters in length, replace the old ISCI codes, and link descriptive
information about each ad to its code.

AM Drive
Also known as morning drive, this is the morning broadcast time period for Radio,
most often represented by Monday through Friday from 6AM to 10AM as defined and
reported by Arbitron. An individual station’s “daypart(s)” will not necessarily conform
to this standard definition(s). Advertising contracts should include the specific hours
that define the time period for each station’s “daypart.”

Average Quarter-Hour Persons (AQH)
The average number of persons listening to a particular station for at least five consecutive
minutes during a 15-minute period.

Average Quarter-Hour Rating
The average Quarter-Hour Persons estimate expressed as a percentage of the
population being measured.
Formula: AQH Persons divided by the Population x 100 = AQH Rating (%).

Audience Composition
The demographic or socioeconomic profile of a station’s audience in terms of composition
usually including the percentages of the total audience that fall into each segment.
These reports can express audience characteristics by age, gender, ethnicity,
working persons, language preference, county, etc.

Audience Duplication
The amount of one station’s cume audience (see Cume Persons) that also listens to
another station; also the amount of the audience that is exposed to a commercial on
more than one station. Duplication can be expressed either in terms of the actual
number of exclusive listeners or as a percentage of the total cume.

Audience Turnover
The ratio of a station’s cumulative audience (see Cume Persons) compared to the
average quarter-hour audience. Turnover equals cume persons divided by AQH
persons. In theory, it is the number of times an audience is replaced by new listener
within a daypart.

Avail
The commercial position in a program or between programs on a given station or
network available for purchase by an advertiser. It can also refer to the notification
from a buyer to a seller that advertising dollars are up for discussion and negotiation.

Billboard
In broadcast, sponsor mentions given to an advertiser in return for a major commitment
to a program, usually to one that purchases multiple commercials within a
program (i.e., a “sponsor” of the program). In outdoor media, a billboard is an advertising
structure.

Bonus
Additional commercials given to an advertiser, usually at no charge, in return for a
paid schedule.

Broadcast Coverage Area
The geographic area within which a signal from an originating station can be received.

Best Time Available (BTA)
Commercials which are scheduled by the station to run at the best available time after
all other sponsor commitments are met, usually at night or on weekends.

Cancellation Policy
The terms under which an advertiser can cancel a schedule that has already been
purchased and scheduled to be broadcast, including the required amount of time for
advance notice and any applicable financial penalty or consequence to be applied for
early termination of the schedule.

Clearance
A. The broadcasting stations that carry or clear a network or syndicated program
and/or its commercials. This list is usually accompanied by a coverage percentage
indicating the percentage of the population in markets in which the program airs.
B. Non-clearance refers to commercials that had been negotiated but could not
be scheduled due to tight inventory. In such cases, the station will often try to offer a
solution (i.e., opening up dayparts, making good within flight — which moves the
commercials from one week to another, etc.).

Cluster
A cluster is a group of stations in the same market under common ownership or sales
management. This usually refers to three or more AM and/or FM stations, or at least
two stations on the same band, FM or AM. Groups of one AM and one FM are
usually referred to as combos. A spot cluster refers to all commercials that run in the
same commercial break.

Close of Business (COB)
COB refers to any arrangement that is due or becomes valid or invalid end of the
business day.

Combo
Two Radio stations, usually operated by the same owner in the same market. A single
station is frequently referred to as a standalone. Three or more commonly-owned
stations are commonly referred to as a cluster.

Commercial Clutter
Commercial clutter commonly refers to an excessive amount of non-program content
during the time period, including the number of commercials, public service announcements
and/or promotional announcements that run in a commercial break,
stop set or specified time period.

Confirmation
A written statement given to advertising agencies by a network, station, or publisher
when accepting an order for a commercial or media schedule. This signifies that the
order has been received and will clear.

Conflicts/Conflict Codes
A term used to define categories or codes for types of advertisers for spot placement
and sales analysis purposes. (Examples: auto dealers, restaurants, banking institutions,
etc.)

Cost Per Point (CPP)
The cost of reaching an Average Quarter-Hour Persons audience that is equivalent to
one percent of the population in a given demographic group.
Formula:
1. Commercial cost divided by AQH Rating = CPP or
2. Cost of schedule divided by GRP (Gross Rating Points) = CPP

Cost Per Thousand (CPM)
The cost of delivering 1,000 gross impressions.
Formula:
1. Commercial cost divided by AQH Persons x 1000 = CPM or
2. Cost of schedule divided by Gross Impressions (GI) x 1000 = CPM

Credit
A cash deduction for the loss of advertising time due to the station not airing or
improperly scheduling a commercial announcement.

Cume Persons
The total number of different persons who listen to a Radio station during a daypart for
at least five consecutive minutes.

Cume Rating
The Cume Persons audience expressed as a percentage of all persons estimated to
be in the specified demographic group.
Formula: Cume Persons divided by the population x 100 = Cume Rating (%)

Daypart
The time segments into which a day is divided by Radio and television networks and
stations for the purpose of selling advertising time. In Radio, the main dayparts are
morning (or AM drive), midday, afternoon (or PM drive) and evening. An individual
station’s daypart(s) will not necessarily conform to standard definition(s). Advertising
contracts should include the specific hours that define the time period for each
station’s daypart.

Daypart Weight
The relative importance of one time period compared to another in a schedule that
includes both, usually expressed as a percentage where the total of all dayparts
equals 100%. Also refers to the relative distribution of commercials in one time period
versus others in the schedule.

Daytime (also known as “Midday”)
The late morning/early afternoon broadcast time period for Radio, most often represented
by Monday though Friday from 10AM-3PM as defined and reported by
Arbitron. Since an individual station’s daypart(s) will not necessarily conform to
standard definition(s), and since traffic departments use the term “daytime” to refer to
a broader 6AM-7PM time period, all advertising contracts should include the specific
hours that define the time period for each station’s daypart.

Designated Market Area (DMA)
DMA is the main geography for television measurement. The DMA is composed of
sampling units (counties or geographically split counties) and is defined and updated
annually by Nielsen Media Research, based on historical television viewing patterns.
A county or split county is assigned exclusively to one DMA.

Direct Response Advertising
Direct response refers to any advertising that has a built-in call to action to elicit a
response within a defined period of time after exposure to the announcement. Phone
calls, online orders, and visits to a location would be examples of a direct response
advertising.

Discrepancy
Situation where commercials do not run as ordered or do not run at all. Discrepancy
may also refer to the difference between a purchased schedule and when the commercials
actually were broadcast.

Effective Reach
The average number of people that will hear a commercial at least three times during
a campaign.

Endorsement
Refers either to a situation where the station or personality “endorses” the advertiser’s
product or service, usually “live” on-air or the notification on the affidavit supplied by
the station to the client that attests to the affidavit’s accuracy as to how the spots were
broadcast.

Equal Distribution
Ensuring that commercials are scheduled to run in a broad time period or combination
of time periods, getting equally distributed across each time period.

Equal Rotation
While sometimes used interchangeably with “equal distribution,” equal rotation is
actually used by agency and copy people, traffic directors and continuity directors to
indicate that all pieces of individual copy, or pre-produced cuts are to be equally
rotated. Equal distribution refers to ensuring that commercials are scheduled to run in
a broad time period or combination of time periods and get equally distributed across
each time period (see Rotation).

Evening
Also known as nights, this is the late evening broadcast time period for Radio, most
often represented by Monday though Friday from 7PM-Midnight as defined and
reported by Arbitron. An individual station’s daypart(s) will not necessarily conform to
this standard definition(s). Advertising contracts should include the specific hours that
define the time period for each station’s daypart.

Exposure
A person’s physical contact (visual and/or audio) with an advertising medium or
message.

Fixed Position
A commercial scheduled to run at a precise time, or a commercial scheduled to run
within specific programming content.

Fixed Rate
The rate charged for a fixed position commercial (see fixed position), usually a non
pre-emptible premium rate.

Fixed Time
See fixed position.

Flight
A scheduling tactic that alternates periods of advertising activity with periods of no activity.

Flight Dates
The start and end dates of a schedule including the weeks on and off air.

Frequency
The average number of times the same person will hear a commercial.

Frontload
Refers to creating a schedule that tends to place more commercials on days of the
week that have less demand, and fewer commercials on days with the heaviest
demand. If a station is heavily sold on Thursday and Friday, but has fewer sales on
Monday and Tuesday, a frontloaded order for Monday through Friday might place four
(4) commercials per day on Monday and Tuesday, three (3) on Wednesday, and two
(2) on Thursday and Friday.

Gross Impressions (GIs)
The sum of the Average Quarter-Hour Persons (AQH) audience for all commercials in
a given schedule. The total number of times a commercial will be heard over the
course of a schedule.
Formula: AQH Persons x the number of commercials in the advertising schedule
= GIs

Gross Rating Points (GRPs)
The sum of all rating points achieved for a particular commercial schedule.
Formula: AQH Rating x the number of commercials in the advertising schedule =
GRPs

Guarantee
Usually refers to a station promise to honor a specific commercial rate for an agreed
upon period of time which is linked to certain criteria, such as schedules previously
purchased, a minimum volume of business placed by the client or the rate charged by
the station to other clients. May also refer to guarantees of spot placement or schedule
clearance, frequently determined by the class of rate paid for the spot or schedule.

Horizontal Rotation
Ensuring that commercial announcements purchased in a program or time period that
includes multiple days (example: Monday-Friday) are placed across all days in order
to increase advertising exposure to various prospects. Implies fair rotation across
days of the week so that spots not loaded into early week scheduling.

ISCI Code (International Standard Coding Identification)
A code previously used to identify specific radio and television commercials. This
coding system has been replaced by the Ad-ID system (see Ad-ID).

Identification (ID)
A short on-air sponsor mention.

Index
A comparison between the market composition and the target composition. It is a
measure of concentration or likelihood. It tells us whether a specific group is more or
less likely to meet a given criteria.

Lead Time
The minimum amount of time necessary for the station to be informed in advance of
schedule placement, or changes that are requested by the client in a buy already
scheduled to run. Can also refer to the amount of time between the announcement of
a possible campaign and the actual dates it is scheduled to run.

Live Read
A specific commercial type where the announcement is read “live” on-air by a station
personality.

Local Marketing Agreement (LMA)
An arrangement where one station or owner takes sales responsibility for the commercial
time on another station that it does not own.

Local Advertising
Advertising placed by companies within their home area, the limited geographic area
where they do business. Also refers to advertising placed by agencies that is scheduled
to run in the market where the agency is based.

Lowest Unit Rate
The lowest rate offered by the station to any regularly scheduled advertiser for a
specific class and amount of advertising.

Makegood
Comparable commercial time or space given to an advertiser at no additional cost
when advertising is pre-empted, omitted or airs in an unfit condition.

Media Plan
A plan developed with the sole purpose of determining media mix, dollar allocation
and weight levels that will result in a direct correlation to the media buy. It is the first
stage of any media execution.

Merchandising
While not a standard practice, on occasion additional consideration is negotiated in
advance as one of the terms of a schedule. There is no standard formula for determining
merchandising amounts, and it is usually negotiated on a company-by-company,
or station-by-station basis. Merchandising may be in the form of goods or
services for the advertiser’s discretionary use, or on-air promotional announcements,
product giveaways or other promotional support.

Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)
Includes a city (or cities) whose population is specified as that of the central city
together with the county (or counties) in which it is located. The MSA also includes
contiguous or additional counties when the economic and social relationships between
the central and additional counties meet specific criteria. Arbitron MSA may
correspond to the Metropolitan Statistical Areas defined by the U.S. Government’s
Office of Management and Budget, but they are subject to exceptions dictated by
historical industry usage and other marketing considerations. MSA’s are commonly
referred to as Metros.

Midday (See Daytime)
The late morning/early afternoon broadcast time period for Radio, most often represented
by Monday through Friday from 10AM-3PM as defined and reported by
Arbitron. Since an individual station’s daypart(s) will not necessarily conform to
standard definition(s), and since traffic departments use the term “daytime” to refer to
a broader 6AM-7PM time period, all advertising contracts should include the specific
hours that define the time period for each station’s daypart.

National Advertising
Advertising placed by companies with national or regional distribution. The campaign
runs in many markets outside their “home” area or region. Also refers to advertising
placed by agencies that is scheduled to run in markets other than where the agency is
based.

Net Reach
The number of different people that will hear the commercial at least one time.

Network
A broadcast entity that provides programming and sells commercial time in programs
aired nationally via affiliated and/or licensed local stations.

No charge
Commercials provided to the advertiser at no charge, usually in return for commercials
purchased in other dayparts at higher rates.

Non-clearance
Commercials that had been negotiated but could not be scheduled due to a variety of
reasons including tight inventory, offensive products, business conflicts, or the advertiser
has requested that the commercial not be cleared in particular programs. In such
cases the station will often try to offer a solution (i.e., opening up dayparts, making
commercials good within flight — which moves the spots from one week to another,
etc.).

Optimum Effective Scheduling (OES)
OES represents a philosophy of buying and scheduling commercials that is designed to
reach the majority of a Radio station’s cume audience three or more times in a week by
distributing commercials evenly Monday through Sunday from 6AM to Midnight.

One Time Only (OTO)
Traditionally, OTO is an ad or spot that runs only one time.

Overnight
The overnight broadcast time period for Radio is most often represented by Monday
through Sunday from Midnight-6AM as defined by Arbitron ratings. An individual
station’s daypart(s) will not necessarily conform to this standard definition(s). Advertising
contracts should include the specific hours that define the time period for each
station’s daypart.

Package Billing
A contract or order that charges a flat, fixed amount per invoice regardless of the
number of commercials or other programs or features broadcast.

Piggy-Back
Two commercials scheduled to run back-to-back, purchased by the same advertiser.
Examples include two individual commercials for two related products from the same
client, or one 60-second commercial where the first 30 seconds carries a message
from a national advertiser and the second 30 seconds is provided to a local affiliate.
Availability is determined by individual station policy.

PM Drive
Also known as afternoon drive, this is the late afternoon broadcast time period for
Radio, most often represented by Monday though Friday from 3-7PM as defined and
reported by Arbitron. An individual station’s daypart(s) will not necessarily conform to
this standard definition(s). Advertising contracts should include the specific hours that
define the time period for each station’s daypart.

Pod
Pod is a TV term that refers to a grouping of commercials and non-program material in
which (usually) more than one advertiser’s commercials air. In Radio, a pod is more
frequently referred to as a commercial cluster, commercial break, or stop set.

Political Rate
Stations are required to provide discounted rates for advertisements aired by candidates
under certain circumstances during the prescribed “windows” before primary
and general elections. (For additional information contact your company’s communications
counsel or the National Association of Broadcasters Legal Department.)

Post Buy or Post Analysis
A TV referring to the analysis of a media schedule after it runs — generally based on
physical evidence of its running (broadcast station affidavit of performance it generally
incorporates a comparison of the TV station’s projected ratings for specific programs
ordered to what actually ran in terms of spot placement and actual audience delivery.

Pre-emption and Pre-emptible
Pre-emption refers to the displacement of a scheduled commercial announcement by
the station or network in favor of a higher-priced commercial or for some other reason.
Pre-emptible refers to a class of commercial announcements that are usually purchased
at a lower rate with the understanding that the placement may be changed by
the station if other commercials are subsequently sold at higher prices.

Pulsing
A technique that calls for either a continuous base of support augmented by intermittent
bursts of heavy pressure, or an on-off-on-off pattern (e.g., one week on, one week off).

Quintiles
Quintiles are a five-scale measurement, in 20% increments, of an individual’s media
usage. The first quintile measures the heaviest use and the fifth quintile measures the
lightest use. For Radio, the number of quarter-hours listened to Radio determines
quintile placement for a respondent.

Rate Protection
Rate guaranteed for an agreed period of time.

Relative Cost
The relationship between the price paid for advertising time or space and the size of
the audience delivered. It is used to compare the prices of various media vehicles.

Rep
Short for representative. Refers to either: A) A company (the “national rep”) or the
account executive who serves as the account executive on behalf of the station in
markets outside of the station’s home market or B) The station account executive who
serves a local advertiser or agency.

Run of Schedule (ROS)
ROS commercials are scheduled to run across multiple dayparts within a broad
daypart parameter.

Rotation
While equal rotation means rotating various pieces of copy evenly to traffic departments,
buyers and sellers use the term to refer to the distribution of commercials across a
representative cross-section of days and hours within the purchased broad time period.
Scheduling of advertising in the same program or time period on different days each
week is referred to as horizontal distribution (or rotation), while distribution throughout the
hours of a particular day is referred to as vertical distribution (or rotation).

Scatter Plan
Purchasing commercial time in broadcast media in many different programs.

Seasonality
The fluctuation around an audience estimate or an advertiser’s target campaign that
can result from changes in regional weather patterns during different times of the
year, the lifestyle habits of audiences and/or the impact of sporting events, which can
influence audience levels by season.

Separation
A scheduling policy determined by individual stations that allows for a specified time
or number of commercials between two competitive products of the same product
type, either within the same commercial break or some other period of time.

Simulcast
When two or more Radio stations broadcast the same programs and same commercials
at ALL times, and use only one traffic system, they are said to be simulcast. If two or
more stations broadcast only a portion of their day together, but are different at other
times, they are considered to be “partially simulcast,” but would require two time order or
traffic sections to schedule programs or announcements during the times when they
have separate programming.

Sponsorship
The purchase of more than one commercial within a program, usually at a premium
rate. Can include bonus time via billboards, or exclusivity of advertising within the
brand’s product category, or all of the above. Can also refer to the purchase of all or
part of a Radio program by one advertiser.

Substitution
The policy concerning a station’s right to provide the advertiser with alternate commercial
placement from the positions purchased according to the original contract.

Total Audience Plan (TAP)
TAP plans are usually a rotating schedule that places announcements in a pattern that
utilizes all station dayparts for maximum station audience exposure. Actual plans vary
from station to station.

Target Demo
The age and characteristic make-up of the group deemed to be targeted for reach by
the media campaign. The age group and make-up of the audience that you wish to
receive your product or service message.

TILL Further Notice (TF) or (TFN)
TFN are instructions by an advertiser to run a purchased schedule or
advertisement(s) until notified to stop.

Time Spent Listening (TSL)
The estimated amount of time that a person spent listening to or hearing a radio
during a particular daypart. The estimate is expressed in hours and minutes per day
or per week and in terms of either population or listeners.

Total Survey Area (TSA)
A geographic area that encompasses the Metro Survey Area (MSA) and may include
additional counties located outside the MSA which meet certain listening criteria to
metro-licensed stations.

Unit
A unit is one commercial message regardless of length. Radio inventory is usually
expressed in terms of units rather than minutes.

Vertical Rotation
Fair rotation across hours within a daypart.

Weekend
The Saturday and Sunday broadcast time period for Radio, most often represented by
Sat/Sun 6AM-MID as defined by Arbitron ratings.

Weight
The relative importance of one time period or demographic compared to another in a
schedule, usually expressed as a percentage where the total of all parts equals 100%.
Also refers to the relative distribution of commercials in one time period compared to
others in a schedule.

Network and Syndicated Radio Terms Addendum

This addendum contains terms and/or definitions that have substantial differences in meaning than when referring to spot radio, or a term is used exclusively in network or syndicated radio

Ad-ID
Advertising Digital Identification is a new system developed by ANA and AAAA that
provides the marketing and advertising industries with a new digital identification
standard for their advertising assets. The assets can be any materials- radio spots,
TV commercials, print ads, internet banners, out of home boards, and FSI’s. The
codes are 12 characters in length, replace the old ISCI codes, and link descriptive
information about each ad to its code.

Affidavit
A signed or verified document from the affiliate that states that specific programs and/
or commercials have been cleared as declared in their contract or with actual clearance
times. Accurate and timely completion of the affidavit is a requirement of
affiliation contracts between the station and the network or program syndicator.
Completed affidavits can be returned to the networks or syndicator in printed form or
by the Internet.

Affiliated Station
A radio station that has a contract with a network or syndicator to clear national
commercials in exchange for programs, services, and/or compensation.

Audience Composition
The demographic or socioeconomic profile of a network’s or national syndicated
program’s audience in terms of makeup, usually including the percentages of the total
audience that constitute each segment. These reports may express audience characteristics
such as age, gender, location of listening, Census region, county size,
household size, DMA markets, education, household income, ethnicity, race, work
status, and presence of children in the household.

Audience Duplication
The amount of one network’s cumulative audience that also listened to another
network within the specified daypart. Duplication can be expressed either in terms of
the actual number of exclusive listeners or as a percentage of the total cume.

Audience Estimates
Approximations of the number of persons listening to or hearing a network radio
commercial, network program, or syndicated program. The reliability of audience
estimates are not precise mathematical values and are subject to statistical variations
and other limitations. For radio networks reported in RADAR, audience estimates
represent radio listening as reported by respondents in Arbitron diaries matched with
commercial clearances as reported by affiliates in affidavits. For non-RADAR networks
and syndicated programs, estimates are based solely on listening as reported
in Arbitron diaries and do not take into consideration commercial clearances.

Average Audience (AA)
The average number of impressions per quarter-hour within a specified time period
(e.g., a daypart) or to a network broadcast as reported in RADAR.

Average Audience Rating
The estimated average audience during a specified quarter hour or a daypart, expressed
as a percentage of the population of the target audience. Usually, carried
one place past the decimal point.
Formula: Average Audience / Population x 100 = Average Audience Rating (%)

Average Daily Cume
The estimated average of cumulative audiences for each day of the week (e.g.,
Monday-Friday). This represents the average number of different persons reached
per day.

Blackout
A request by an advertiser for scheduled spots not to run on particular affiliates,
usually in areas of the U.S. where the advertiser does not have product distribution.
This is a valid reason for non-clearance on those affiliates.

Broadcast Clock
The hourly schedule for networks or programs that breaks down the minutes of
programming and the minutes of commercial inventory.

Broad Daypart
Dayparts with multiple component dayparts (e.g., 6AM-7PM, 6AM-12Midnight).

Broad Rotation
See “Run of Schedule.”

Clearance
An airing of a network commercial or program by an affiliate. A station’s confirmation
that a commercial has aired at a specified day and time. It reflects commercial
carriage information and is reported back to the network or syndicator via the station’s
affidavit.

Clearance List
Because not all affiliates broadcast programs at the same time, a “clearance list”
provides the exact time that each affiliate has declared it will air that particular program.
For example, some stations carry a program “live” when fed over satellite while
other stations may tape the program and broadcast it later. A weekend syndicated
program very often airs at different times – one affiliate may run a show on Saturday
1PM-3PM; another, on Saturday 3PM-5PM; and, another, on Sunday 10AM-12Noon.

Commercial Load
The amount of commercial time or the number of units in a given period usually stated
on an hourly basis.

Commercial Pod
See “Pod”.

Confirmation
A written or oral statement given to advertising agencies by a network or syndication
company when accepting an order for a commercial or media schedule. This signifies
that the order has been received and will clear.

County Size Definition
A system of categorizing U.S. counties by population into five categories (i.e., AA, A,
B, C, and D). It was developed by Nielsen Media Research, except for the AA distinction,
which is from Arbitron RADAR service.

Coverage
The percentage of the total U.S. Persons 12+ population contained within all of the
DMAs where an affiliate’s signal can be received. Also called “DMA Coverage” or
“Percent Coverage.”

Covered Rating Points
Delivered rating points.

Cumulative Audience
The total number of different persons who listen to a network or national syndicated
program during a specified daypart for at least five consecutive minutes. Also, referred
to as “cume.”

Daypart Distribution
Percentage of schedule across specific dayparts adding up to 100%.

Designated Market Area (DMA)
DMA is the main geography for television measurement. The DMA is composed of
sampling units (counties or geographically split counties) and is defined and updated
annually by Nielsen Media Research, based on historical television viewing patterns.
A county or split county is assigned exclusively to one DMA. Network radio as
reported in RADAR includes only the DMAs located in the continental U.S., excluding
Alaska and Hawaii. Arbitron’s Nationwide service reports radio audience within
DMAs, including Alaska and Hawaii. Almost all radio network and national syndication
buys are based on DMA.

Effective Frequency
The concept that a certain amount of exposure (often three exposures) to an advertising
message is necessary before it is effective.

Endorsement
A commercial in which the network or program personality personally recommends an
advertiser’s product or service, often done live during the program.

Exclusive Reach
An audience that can only be covered by a specific network or program.

Full Daypart Networks
Networks whose broadcasts are found in all or virtually all component dayparts
Monday-Sunday 6AM-12Midnight.

Full Inventory Networks
Networks with more than 100 minutes of commercial inventory.

Guarantee
An agreement that the amount of audience purchased will be delivered for a given
schedule.

Hold
Short period (usually several days) during which buyer and seller have agreed on
what the schedule is to be booked while agency gains final client approval.

In-Program Clearances
When the network or program commercial is cleared by the affiliate within the program.
ISCI Code (International Standard Coding Identification)
A code previously used to identify specific radio and television commercials. This
coding system has been replaced by the Ad-ID system (see Ad-ID).

Limited Daypart Networks
Networks whose broadcasts are found in only one component daypart (e.g., 6AM-
10AM).

Limited Inventory Networks
Networks with less than 100 minutes of commercial inventory.

Lineup
A list of stations reflecting affiliates contractually obligated to clear the commercials
associated with a network or national program. While the line-up is updated regularly,
new affiliates can be added at anytime and some stations may disaffiliate. Every
affiliate on the list is not necessarily obligated to clear 100% of all commercials
scheduled. By contract, certain stations may clear a single commercial more than
once or may not clear all of the commercials due to special circumstances.

Live Feed
When a network or syndicator feeds the program and/or commercials across the
entire U.S. at one time. Thus, for example, it is heard at 9AM in the Eastern Time
Zone, 8AM in the Central Time Zone, 7AM in the Mountain Time Zone, and 6AM in the
Pacific Time Zone.

Live Read
A specific commercial type where the announcement is read “live” on-air by the
network or program personality. Also, called “Voice Read.”

Long-Form Programming
See “Syndicated Programming.”

Monitoring
To check on the accuracy of the RADAR clearance information, Arbitron samples
network affiliates on a continuous basis. Selected periods of times for the sample
station are tape recorded with broadcast programs and commercials transcribed.
Affiliate affidavits are checked against the monitored record. Each network organization
receives reports on their affiliates’ accuracy that allows the networks the opportunity
to address an affiliate that might not be completing its affidavit correctly.

Multi-Daypart Networks
In RADAR, networks whose broadcasts can air across component dayparts (e.g.,
6AM-7PM).

Multiple Clearances
Certain networks have affiliation agreements that allow certain stations to carry more
than the full inventory offered by the network or the same inventory more than once.

National Advertising
Advertising placed on networks or syndicated programs with at least 70% U.S. coverage.
Differs from national ‘spot’ in the number of markets and percent of coverage.

Nationwide
Arbitron’s national radio audience survey issued twice a year (Spring and Fall).
Provides local market radio listening data for national programs and aggregates to
Total U.S.
Network
A broadcast entity that can provide programs, services, and/or compensation to
affiliated stations in exchange for those stations airing national commercials.

Network Radio Research Council (NRRC)
An organization of researchers from networks reported in RADAR dedicated to
improving the quality of national radio measurements.

Non-Clearances
Commercials that have been negotiated and could not be scheduled by individual
affiliated stations due to a variety of reasons including tight inventory, offensive or
unacceptable products, business conflicts, or the advertiser’s request that the commercial
not be cleared in a particular program or on a particular station. In such
cases, the affiliate will often try to offer a solution (e.g., playing the commercial in
another daypart, making commercials good within flight by moving the spots from one
week to another).

One Time Only (OTO)
Traditionally, an ad, spot, or special national program (e.g., horse race, concert) that
runs only once.

Overdelivery
When an advertiser’s schedule generates more audience than originally estimated
during the buying negotiation process.

Owned and Operated Station (O&O)
A radio station licensed to a broadcast company that may also have radio networks
and/or syndicated programs.

Partials (or, Partial Clearances)
Certain networks have affiliation agreements that allow certain stations to carry less
than the full inventory offered by the network.

Parts
Within the RADAR PC2010 software package, this allows analysis of commercial
schedules based on daypart placement. Usually used during the development of
commercial schedules for specific advertisers and during the negotiation phase of a
buy.

Pod
A group of commercials and non-program material that runs back-to-back and frequently
is referred to a s a commercial cluster, break or set.

Post Analysis or Post Buy
An analysis of a network commercial schedule after it runs based on affiliate affidavits
to compare the projected audience estimates to the actual audience delivery. Requests
for network posts are agreed to during the negotiation process.

Product Unacceptable (PU)
A judgment by station management whereby commercials for specific categories of
products are deemed inappropriate for broadcast on the station. Categories can vary
significantly by station. Common categories include competitive media and sexually
explicit content or products. These are valid reasons for non-clearance on those
affiliates.

RADAR
Arbitron syndicated measurement service providing audience estimates to cleared
network radio commercials for networks that subscribe to the service. RADAR
estimates are released four times per year..

Reach
The number of different persons in the audience of a specified advertising campaign,
station, network, or syndicated program.

Remnant Inventory
Commercial time sold to advertisers paying lower prices. Can always be preempted.

Re-Rate
When an advertiser takes the schedule originally bought and uses the latest survey to
determine audience delivery.

Response Rate
The proportion of originally designated sample persons who provide usable data for
the survey. Response rates are determined by dividing the total number of in-tab
(usable) diaries by the total estimated Persons 12+ in the designated sample. Usually
expressed as a percentage.

Scan
Part of the RADAR PC2010 software package. Allows analysis of pre-tabulated
RADAR data in several report formats.

Scatter Plan
Purchasing commercial time during the year as opposed to being part of a year- long
plan. See “Upfront.”

Sponsorship
Exclusive rights to a program for the whole program or for a product category purchased
by one or more advertiser.

Spots
Part of the RADAR PC2010 software package. Allows analysis of commercial schedules
based on specific commercial placement. Usually used as part of a post analysis.
See “Post Analysis.”

Standard Daypart Networks
Network that broadcasts in most component dayparts.

Syndicated Programming
National programs that stations are contractually obligated to clear. These programs have
commercials associated with them which are usually cleared within the programs. The length
of these programs can be as short as a one-minute feature to as long as a twelve-hour holiday
special. The content of the program can include music, talk, or sports play-by-play. Audiences
to syndicated programs can be based on dayparts or on expected commercial clearance
times, but are not based on actual clearances.

System to Optimize Radio Network Schedules (SOS)
Part of the RADAR PC2010 software package. Allows the development of an optimal
network radio schedule by maximizing the number of persons reached, or minimizing
the costs required to achieve a specified reach.

Targets
Part of the RADAR PC2010 software package. Creates custom electronic ratings
books.

Time Zone Feed
When a network or syndicator feeds the same program and/or commercials across the
entire U.S. by Time Zone to reach listeners at the same actual time. Thus, for example, it
is heard at 9AM in the Eastern Time Zone, 9AM in the Central Time Zone, 9AM in the
Mountain Time Zone, and 9AM in the Pacific Time Zone. It should be noted that some
networks have only three feeds (i.e., affiliates in the Mountain Time Zone can choose
between the Central Time Zone feed or the Pacific Time Zone feed).

Total Radio
Audience estimates to all radio stations, commercial and noncommercial, AM and FM.

Underdelivery
When an advertiser’s schedule generates less audience than originally estimated
during the buying negotiation process.

Unit
One commercial message regardless of length.

Upfront
A term applied to an advertiser’s yearlong plan for the purchase of radio commercial
time. Usually these are negotiated before the start of the calendar year.

Voice Read
A specific commercial type where the announcement is read “live” on-air by the
network or program personality. Also, called “Live Read.”

Volume 1 Data
Within the RADAR service, a report of national radio listening that includes estimates
for total radio listening, network affiliated stations listening, AM and FM stations, and
other characteristics. Volume 1 does not contain cleared audience estimates for
specific radio networks.

Volume 2 Data
Within the RADAR service, reports listening for the specific RADAR-reported networks
for all commercials aired on network-affiliated stations whether they are carried
within or outside of programs.

Volume 3 Data
Within the RADAR service, reports listening for the specific RADAR-reported networks
for commercials aired on network-affiliated stations within programs only.

Weekly Cume
The average number of different persons reached in one week (i.e., Monday-Sunday
6AM-6AM).

Weight
Media planning term, usually GRP targets for a week.

xb
A notation in RADAR denoting a network’s audience estimate for a specified daypart
does not include broadcasts from one or more components of the daypart.

xd
A notation in RADAR denoting a specific network program is not included in the
daypart averages for that network.